Periodontal disease is a pathology that attacks the dental supporting tissues (gums bone connective tissue). It is related to the presence of "plaque", an invisible film which forms on the teeth and under the gums. The accumulation of plaque increases the formation of various types of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.
FIG. 1 In normal conditions, there is little plaque only on the surface of the teeth (shown in light-blue). The anaerobic bacteria (shown by the blue dots) are almost non-existant under the gums.
FIG. 2 If plaque on the tooth surface increases, the passage between teeth and gums closes and no oxygen is transmitted, therefore resulting in the multiplication of "anaerobic bacteria", that thrive on the absence of oxygen.
The increase in anaerobic bacteria will result in the destruction of the connective tissue between the gums and the root of the tooth. This will result in the destruction of the bone and eventually the loss of the tooth itself.
    If caught in time, the periodontal disease (at the initial phase) can be cured by the use of scaling and root planning. These are non - surgical procedures used to remove sub-gengival plaque and calculus.
    At the advanced phase, surgical procedures must be used: resective surgery, to reshape the bone defects; regenerative surgery, to recreate the tissues around the roots.

    Brush and floss every day (if possible, 20 min. after meals).
    Have regular dental examinations and profilaxis (at least twice a year, but every 3 months is suggested, in order to avoid the formation of anaerobic bacteria under the gums).

KEEP IN MIND: The Periodontist is a Dentist, specialist in the treatment of gums and supporting tissues.


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