Periodontal disease is a pathology that attacks
the dental supporting tissues (gums – bone – connective
tissue). It is related to the presence of "plaque",
an invisible film which forms on the teeth and
under the gums. The accumulation of plaque increases
the formation of various types of aerobic and anaerobic
conditions, there is little plaque only on the
surface of the teeth (shown in light-blue). The anaerobic
bacteria (shown by the blue dots) are almost
non-existant under the gums.
If plaque on the tooth surface increases,
the passage between teeth and gums closes and no
oxygen is transmitted, therefore resulting in the
multiplication of "anaerobic bacteria",
that thrive on the absence of oxygen.
The increase in anaerobic bacteria will result
in the destruction of the connective tissue between
the gums and the root of the tooth. This will result
in the destruction of the bone and eventually
the loss of the tooth itself.
If caught in time, the periodontal disease (at the
initial phase) can be cured by the use of scaling and
root planning. These are non - surgical procedures
used to remove sub-gengival plaque and calculus.
At the advanced phase, surgical procedures must
be used: resective surgery, to reshape the bone
defects; regenerative surgery, to recreate the
tissues around the roots.
Brush and floss every day (if possible,
20 min. after meals).
Have regular dental examinations and profilaxis
(at least twice a year, but every 3 months is suggested,
in order to avoid the formation of anaerobic bacteria
under the gums).
KEEP IN MIND:
The Periodontist is a Dentist, specialist in the
treatment of gums and supporting tissues.